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Conditional Sentences

Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.

 

Conditional Sentence Type 1

→ It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.

 

Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future

Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

 

Conditional Sentence Type 2

→ It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.

 

Form: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

 

Conditional Sentence Type 3

→ It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.

 

Form: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle)

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

 

Exceptions

Sometimes Conditional Sentences Type I, II and III can also be used with other tenses.

 

So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it’s possible for example that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect.

 


 

Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)

Condition

refers to:

IF Clause

Main Clause

future action Simple Present If the book is interesting, … Future I …I will buy it.
Imperative …buy it.
Modal Auxiliary …you can buy it.
action going on now Present Progressive If he is snoring, … Future I …I will wake him up.
Imperative …wake him up.
Modal Auxiliary …you can wake him up.
finished action Present Perfect If he has moved into his new flat, … Future I …we will visit him.
Imperative …visit him.
Modal Auxiliary …we can visit him.
improbable action should + Infinitive If she should win this race, … Future I …I will congratulate her.
Imperative …congratulate her.
Modal Auxiliary …we can congratulate her.
present facts Simple Present If he gets what he wants, … Simple Present …he is very nice.

 

Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)

Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present / future event Simple Past If I had a lot of money, … Conditional I …I would travel around the world.
consequence in the past Simple Past If I knew him, … Conditional II …I would have said hello.

 

Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible)

Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present Past Perfect If I had known it, … Conditional I …I would not be here now.
past Past Perfect If he had learned for the test, … Conditional II …he would not have failed it.

 

Source: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences 

About サクラ

People call me Eri, so feel free to call me Eri ^^ よろしく!

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